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Australia at War Post 1945

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Helping Children in War-Torn Countries

Moira Kelly begs for funds from international charities to bring children from war-torn Albania to Australia for medical treatment. One of the children almost dies, but the results are worth the risks.

From the website Australians At Work

Kokoda - War on Film

Alister Grierson, director of the 2006 feature film "Kokoda" talks about historical accuracy and representing war experience on film.

From the website Talkback Classroom - Learning Journeys

Australian Biography

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Bradman's Bats

Donald Bradman’s bats are a reminder of how this cricket legend played himself into the record books, earning the status of Australian icon.

From the website National Treasures

Mawson's Expedition to the Antarctic

In 1912, Mawson's expedition arrived in the Antarctic. Little did they realise it was the windiest place on the globe.

From the website Australians At Work

She Wanted To Fly

In the 1930s Nancy Bird Walton became known as the "Angel of the Desert", working with the Royal Flying Doctor Service. Some tried to discourage a woman flying on her own in the turbulent conditions of the outback.

From the website Australians At Work

Edmund Barton and the Velvet Soap Advertisement

The Velvet Soap advertising campaign is a tongue-in-cheek reminder of Edmund Barton’s hand in formulating the White Australia policy.

From the website The Prime Ministers' National Treasures

John Curtin’s Australian Journalists’ Association Badge

John Curtin’s journalistic instincts came in handy during World War Two when he kept the media onside with secret press briefings. He wore his AJA badge every day he was in office.

From the website The Prime Ministers' National Treasures

Stanley Melbourne Bruce's Cigarette Case

Stanley Melbourne Bruce treasured Turkish President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s gift of a gold cigarette case throughout his life.

From the website The Prime Ministers' National Treasures

Ben Chifley’s Pipe

Possibly our best loved Prime Minister, and a former train driver, Ben Chifley was rarely seen without his pipe, as he guided the country through the austere post-war years.

From the website The Prime Ministers' National Treasures

Andrew Fisher’s Lunch Box

Andrew Fisher’s tin lunch box reminds us that humble beginnings informed his political career: he went from union organiser to three-time Prime Minister, inventing the Australian ideal of a ‘fair go’ along the way.

From the website The Prime Ministers' National Treasures

Harold Holt’s Briefcase

The disappearance of our seventeenth Prime Minister, Harold Holt, during a beach holiday sparked countless conspiracy theories. The items left in his briefcase are a significant time capsule of his last days as Prime Minister.

From the website The Prime Ministers' National Treasures

William Hughes and the 1916 Conscription Badge

William Hughes, “The Little Digger”, campaigned twice for national conscription to boost an Australian army decimated by World War One.

From the website The Prime Ministers' National Treasures

Robert Menzies’ Camera

Robert Menzies’ lifelong passion for home movies resulted in a surprisingly personal record of the war years, including footage of a young Princess Elizabeth.

From the website The Prime Ministers' National Treasures

The Flower Hunter

Victorian flower painter Ellis Rowan rocked the Australian art establishment when she won the Centennial Art Prize in 1888.

From the website Hidden Treasures – Inside the National Library of Australia

Dame Beryl Beaurepaire

Dame Beryl was a pioneering women’s rights activist who became one of the most influential women in the Federal Liberal Party during the Menzies’ era.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Ted Egan

Ted Egan reflects on his life in remote communities, the inequalities between black and white Australians, the dilemma of holding power over the communities in which he worked and his changing attitude to Land Rights.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Violet Teague & Jessie Traill

Violet Teague and Jessie Traill were part of a remarkable group of independent women who, in the early 20th century, were able to devote their lives to art.

From the website Hidden Treasures

Australian History and Museums

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Charles Darwin's crab collection

Dr Sammy De Grave comments on the importance of Charles Darwin's collection of crabs which were brought to Australia to be part of the Australian National Maritime Museum’s exhibition <cite>Charles Darwin — voyages and ideas that shook the world</cite>.

From the website Charles Darwin - The Australian Connection

Charles Darwin and the talking crabs

A curator examines specimens of crabs collected by Charles Darwin during his ground-breaking voyage.

From the website Charles Darwin - The Australian Connection

Charles Darwin and the Paint Box

Museums have curators to manage and explain the exhibits. Here a museum curator comments on interpreting the meaning and significance of an exhibition object on display as part of the Australian National Maritime Museum’s special exhibition <cite>Charles Darwin — voyages and ideas that shook the world</cite>.

From the website Charles Darwin - The Australian Connection

Charles Darwin and living on <cite>Beagle</cite>

Dr Nigel Erskine comments on how the model of the <cite>Beagle</cite> and the reproduction of Darwin’s cabin, both part of the Australian National Maritime Museum’s exhibition <cite>Charles Darwin — voyages and ideas that shook the world</cite> help us empathise with Darwin's experience on his epic voyage.

From the website Charles Darwin - The Australian Connection

Designing the Charles Darwin- voyages and ideas that shook the world exhibition

Museums have designers to create the physical atmosphere of exhibitions. Here a designer comments on how the model of the <cite>Beagle</cite> and the reproduction of Darwin’s cabin as part of the Australian National Maritime Museum’s special exhibition <cite>Charles Darwin — voyages and ideas that shook the world</cite> help us empathise with his experience.

From the website Charles Darwin - The Australian Connection

Australian Icon

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The Sentimental Bloke Film

The classic 1919 silent movie <cite>The Sentimental Bloke</cite> is regarded as one of the greatest Australian films.

From the website National Treasures

Phar Lap's Hide

In the 1930s, a New Zealand-born horse called Phar Lap won the hearts of Australians and became one of our most loved and enduring icons.

From the website National Treasures

Building the Bridge

In 2007 Australia celebrated the 75th anniversary of the Sydney Harbour Bridge, a giant steel arch resembling a coat hanger that has became one of world's most recognised structures and an engineering triumph.

From the website Constructing Australia

The Bridge Workers

The construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge was a massive investment for the NSW government. The cost was not only in monetary terms but also the destruction of significant areas of Sydney’s heritage and the loss of lives.

From the website Constructing Australia

Ned Kelly's Armour

From violent cop killer to a champion of the working class, bushranger Ned Kelly is a solid gold Australian icon and folk hero.

From the website National Treasures - Australia's Heritage

Sydney's Harbour Bridge Finally Completed

For 6 years the two half arches gradually draw closer together. A dream is realised when the heaviest and biggest bridge arch in the world is finally completed.

From the website Australians At Work

Spanning the Harbour

Construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge commenced in 1925, after more than 100 years of contending ideas about ways to cross the harbour. This animation is about the earlier designs for a bridge to span the harbour.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Australian Prime Ministers

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Ben Chifley - The Aftermath of the Miners' Strike

The coal strike of 1949 would come to exemplify the new cold war world, and drive the Chifley government from power.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Harold Holt becomes Prime Minister

One of the hardest working of Australia’s Cabinet ministers and after 32 years as a parliamentarian, Harold Holt reached the prime ministerial office in 1966.

From the website Australian History Timeline

A Successor for Harold Holt

With Prime Minister Holt's definitive disappearance a new leader had to be appointed. John McEwan was sworn in as Prime Minister by the Governor General on December 19, 1967 on the understanding that he would have this role until the Liberal party appointed its new leader.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Holt Government in Crisis

The disappearance of our seventeenth Prime Minister, Harold Holt, at Cheviot Beach in 1966 during a beach holiday sparked countless conspiracy theories and ultimately overshadowed his political accomplishments.

From the website Australian History Timeline

The Death of Harold Holt

With Australia at war in Vietnam in 1967, suddenly Prime Minister Harold Holt disappeared without a trace—an event unparalleled in the history of western democracy.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Menzies - Early life and the Empire

In 1941 Australia’s Prime Minister Robert Menzies, like most Australians, would have thought of England as the ‘home country’.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Menzies' Forgotten People Speech

With the “Forgotten People” radio talks, Robert Menzies begins reaching out, pitching himself in more domestic, family friendly, homely terms.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Australia's Heritage

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Royal Exhibition Building

During the 19th century, Melbourne’s Royal Exhibition Building was an architectural masterpiece which showcased Australia’s arrival on the world stage as an economic powerhouse.

From the website National Treasures - Australia's Heritage

Naracoorte Fossil Mammal Site

The extraordinary build-up of fossils in South Australia’s World and National Heritage-listed Naracoorte Caves spans at least 350,000 years and provides rare evidence of Australia’s distinctive fauna and the way it has evolved.

From the website National Treasures - Australia's Heritage

Saving the Franklin

Peter Dombrovskis' iconic photograph of Rock Island Bend became the image that galvanised public opinion and inspired the national campaign to save the Franklin River.

From the website Australian History Timeline

John Olsen’s Opera House Mural

John Olsen’s visual diary reveals the inspiration behind the biggest commission of his career, the Sydney Opera House mural.

From the website Hidden Treasures – Inside the National Library of Australia

Australia & the Asia/ Pacific Region

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The Sugar Labour Trade

Phyllis Corowa's father and grandmother were taken from Vanuatu to work on a Queensland sugar plantation.

From the website Pacific Stories

In My Father's Footsteps

In 1988, Meg Taylor began walking across the Highlands of Papua New Guinea to retrace the journey her father had made 50 years earlier.

From the website Pacific Stories

Mining Bougainville

Gregory Kopa, a Bougainville villager describes how he felt when geologists started to look for copper on Bougainville in the 1960s.

From the website Pacific Stories

Origins of the Bougainville Conflict

The story of how long-standing local opposition to a copper mine in Bougainville erupted into full-scale civil war.

From the website Pacific Stories

Journalist's Diary of a Conflict

Veteran ABC journalist, Sean Dorney, looks back on his time in Papua New Guinea covering the Bougainville crisis.

From the website Pacific Stories

Journey Back in Time

In 1938 Jim Taylor lead an epic 15 month exploratory patrol through the Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

From the website Pacific Stories

Remembering Mark Worth - Janet Bell interview

Producer Janet Bell looks back on the life and work of the director of <cite>Land of the Morning Star</cite>, Mark Worth.

From the website Pacific Stories

The Forgotten People

The Indonesian province of Papua has a turbulent history and rich culture. Yet it remains largely unknown.

From the website Pacific Stories

Anna Naupa on Vanuatan heritage

Ni-Vanuatu writer and historian Anna Naupa discusses different views of South Sea Islander labour trade history.

From the website Pacific Stories

Colonisation

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Todd's Telegraph Dream

Charles Todd dreamt of constructing a telegraph line through the heart of the continent.

From the website Constructing Australia

Todd completes Telegraph

In 1870 Charles Todd, using explorer John McDouall Stuart's maps, organised and lead three teams to lay the overland telegraph wire.

From the website Constructing Australia

A Telegraph Line across the Continent

The story of the struggle to cross a vast continent and build the telegraph line that would bring Australia to the world and the world to Australia.

From the website Constructing Australia

Stuart Crosses the Continent

There was enormous public and media speculation about whether the Victorian backed Burke and Wills or South Australia's Stuart expedition would be the first to cross the continent's interior.

From the website Constructing Australia

Captain Cook - Cook Claims New South Wales

After spending some time observing an Aboriginal tribe, Cook commits the most controversial act of the voyage: he claims the entire east coast of New Holland for Britain, without permission from the local inhabitants.

From the website Captain Cook

Augustus Earle and his Dog, Jemmy

Misadventure turned to good fortune when young English artist Augustus Earle was rescued after being marooned on a remote island and accidentally became the colony’s first trained artist.

From the website Hidden Treasures – Inside the National Library of Australia

Figure in the Landscape

John Glover revolutionised his art to become one of Australia’s finest landscape artists.

From the website Hidden Treasures – Inside the National Library of Australia

Aboriginal people and the colony of NSW

On January 26, 1788 the British arrived at what is now known as Sydney, New South Wales, with the intention of taking possession of the land in the name of the British Government and the King, and of staying.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Fremantle Prison

Built by convicts in 1850, Fremantle Prison is the best-preserved convict-built prison in Australia and is part of the earliest phase of European settlement in Western Australia.

From the website National Treasures - Australia's Heritage

Bligh, Macarthur and The Rum Rebellion

On January 26, 1808 troops from the New South Wales Corps march on Government House to place Governor William Bligh under arrest.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Democracy and the Colony of NSW

In 1819 British Commissioner John Thomas Bigge investigates accusations that the colony of NSW has become a land of opportunity for convicts under Governor Lachlan Macquarie.

From the website Australian History Timeline

William Wentworth - "currency lad"

William Wentworth, the colonial born son of a convict, is destined to become a loud, charismatic press baron, publicist, barrister and patriot.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Two convicts steal a place in history

Two soldiers in colonial NSW steal a piece of cloth, with the intention of getting caught.

From the website Australian History Timeline

NSW 1819 - convict gulag or place of opportunity?

In 1819 the life of the working class in newly-industrialised England is harsher than the life and opportunities open to the children of convicts in the colony of NSW.

From the website Australian History Timeline

John Macarthur - Rogue or Hero?

When John Macarthur arrives back in NSW from a failed court marshall in London with a land grant, he takes the best grazing land in the colony. No one can stop him now!

From the website Australian History Timeline

Governor Bligh arrives in NSW

In 1806 William Bligh, accompanied by his daughter Mary Putland arrives as the new Governor of the colony of NSW.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Governor Bligh - Hero or Coward?

Governor William Bligh destroys important documents as he hides from the New South Wales Corps troops who storm Government House and place him under "arrest". It is January 26, 1808.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Charles Darwin thinks about Indigenous people in Australia

In 1836 Darwin briefly visited Australia. Professor Iain McCalman reflects on Darwin's observation of the impact and triumph of settler society on indigenous peoples.

From the website Charles Darwin - The Australian Connection

Discovery and Exploration

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Endeavour Journal

Written on board the Endeavour during his trip down under in 1770, James Cook’s journal records the beginning of Australia as we know it today.

From the website National Treasures

First Fleet Sketches

First Fleet captain John Hunter’s sketchbook showing life in Botany Bay was copied from the work of his talented young midshipman, George Raper.

From the website Hidden Treasures – Inside the National Library of Australia

Stuart encounters Outback Aborigines

When John Stuart crossed the interior of Australia, he did so in ignorance of the complex set of boundaries and rules for the use of shared resources that existed among the Aboriginal people.

From the website Constructing Australia

Captain Cook - Great Southern Continent

In his first great voyage of discovery, James Cook is chosen to find and explore the 'Great Southern Land'.

From the website Captain Cook

Captain Cook - In Search of the North West Passage

Cook’s obsession with discovery continues as he searches for the mythic North West Passage, but is it a journey too far? Now retired and promoted to Post Captain, James Cook is bored. He jumps at the chance to take on a third great voyage: to find a fast route to China to secure Britain’s place in the lucrative tea trade.

From the website Captain Cook

Captain Cook - The Polynesian Tupaia Joins the Endeavour Voyage

Cook takes on board an additional passenger, Polynesian priest and fellow navigator Tupaia. Tupaia shares his remarkable navigational skills, convinced that the notion of a great land mass is a European fantasy.

From the website Captain Cook

Captain Cook - James Cook Joins the Navy

Influential patrons help the bright boy James Cook to an apprenticeship in the merchant navy that would make him a ships’ master. But with an eye for the main chance Cook switches to the Royal Navy.

From the website Captain Cook

Captain Cook - The Death of Cook

James Cook’s temperament has become unstable during the long and unsuccessful hunt for the North West passage. He picks a fight with the Hawaiians after a series of thefts by them from the ships and dies on the beach after a fierce battle.

From the website Captain Cook

South Sea Islander in London

Omai, a young Tahitian warrior who joined Captain James Cook’s second voyage, had his portrait painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds and inspired a spectacular pantomime at Covent Garden.

From the website Hidden Treasures – Inside the National Library of Australia

Batavia Shipwreck Ruins

Stone ruins on Western Australia’s remote West Wallabi Island are the oldest structures built by Europeans in Australia and tell a tale of mutiny and murder.

From the website National Treasures - Australia's Heritage

The Photographer and the Painter

Artists working in different media have created a visual time capsule showing Melbourne in the late 1800s.

From the website Hidden Treasures – Inside the National Library of Australia

Captain Cook’s Tragic Death

Captain James Cook’s untimely return to Hawaii ended with his violent death, the details of which are portrayed in numerous conflicting illustrations.

From the website Hidden Treasures – Inside the National Library of Australia

Federation

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Constructing the East-West Rail Link

Rare archival footage from 1910 shows camels carrying heavy supplies across the desert. Railway labourers are building the 1400 km railway that will finally link Western Australia with the Eastern States.

From the website Australians At Work

Federation and Defending Our Shores

Federation was a time of jobs and opportunities. With our 12,000 mile coast Australia needed a defence force.

From the website Australians At Work

The Founding of Canberra

In 1913 the Basic Living Wage of 2 pounds 8 shillings a week is introduced. Politicians, including William Morris (Billy) Hughes, lay the Foundation Stone for the new National Capital in Canberra.

From the website Australians At Work

Edmund Barton and the Velvet Soap Advertisement

The Velvet Soap advertising campaign is a tongue-in-cheek reminder of Edmund Barton’s hand in formulating the White Australia policy.

From the website The Prime Ministers' National Treasures

Gold

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Gold Rush in the West

Gold, more than any other single factor, transformed the Australian colonies.

From the website Constructing Australia

O'Connor's Dream for Water

In 1890 C. Y. O'Connor was recruited to work as Chief Engineer in the newly self-governing colony of Western Australia, where he formed a dynamic partnership with the colony's larger-than-life Premier, John Forrest.

From the website Constructing Australia

The West and Federation

Some sort of federation of the Australian colonies had been suggested as early as 1846. Ferocious political struggles over the shape of the new nation continued to the eleventh hour.

From the website Constructing Australia

Eureka Flag

Since it fluttered above a group of rebellious gold miners at the 1854 Eureka Stockade, the flag of the Southern Cross has become a symbol of democracy and defiance.

From the website National Treasures - Australia's Heritage

Great Depression

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Phar Lap's Hide

In the 1930s, a New Zealand-born horse called Phar Lap won the hearts of Australians and became one of our most loved and enduring icons.

From the website National Treasures

James Scullin And The GCMG

James Scullin inspired the people when he offered to rent out The Lodge during the Depression, but his fierce nationalism is best revealed in his campaign to install an Australian-born Governor General.

From the website The Prime Ministers' National Treasures

James Scullin And The GCMG

James Scullin inspired the people when he offered to rent out The Lodge during the Depression, but his fierce nationalism is best revealed in his campaign to install an Australian-born Governor General.

From the website The Prime Ministers' National Treasures

Francis De Groot’s Sword

When right-wing agitator Francis De Groot upstaged the 1932 opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge and sliced through the ceremonial ribbon, the antique sword he wielded cemented its place as an Australian national treasure.

From the website National Treasures - Australia's Heritage

Joseph Lyons’ Love Letters

Politics rarely produces impassioned romantics, which makes the hundreds of letters Joseph Lyons wrote to his adored wife and confidante, Enid, as fascinating as they are unexpected

From the website The Prime Ministers' National Treasures

Identity

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Australian South Sea Islanders Discover the Past

Joe and Monica Leo are the descendents of ni-Vanuatu who helped build Queensland's sugar industry.

From the website Pacific Stories

Tom Roberts' Bailed Up

With its revolutionary approach to depicting the landscape and light, Tom Roberts’ Bailed Up is a painting that helped define Australia’s national identity.

From the website National Treasures

The Post War Wool Boom

125 million sheep are spread across Australia. 90 thousand tons of lamb and 3 million tons of wool are exported annually. Australia truly rode to prosperity on the sheep's back.

From the website Australians At Work

First Surfboard

Huge, heavy and finless, the first Aussie surfboard was actually handmade by a visiting Hawaiian in 1914 using a piece of local wood.

From the website National Treasures

Sense of Belonging

Joe and Monica Leo embark on a journey to Vanuatu to recover a small part of their past.

From the website Pacific Stories

Song for the King -- Vika and Linda Bull interview

Vika and Linda Bull talk about the importance of their heritage and connection to Tonga.

From the website Pacific Stories

Kokoda - War on Film

Alister Grierson, director of the 2006 feature film "Kokoda" talks about historical accuracy and representing war experience on film.

From the website Talkback Classroom - Learning Journeys

Ideology and the Curriculum

Who decides what is taught in Australian History in schools?

From the website Talkback Classroom - Learning Journeys

Writing Historical Fiction, Nadia Wheatley

Author and Historian Nadia Wheatley writes about historical events in her fiction because history is a great story.

From the website Talkback Classroom - Learning Journeys

Riding on the Sheep's Back

By the 1950s Australia ‘rode on the sheep’s back’; those who grew the wool had come to symbolise and epitomise what it was to be Australian.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Rules of AFL

Ten hand-written rules displayed in a museum in the heart of the National Heritage-listed Melbourne Cricket Ground hold the key to a great Australian sport.

From the website National Treasures - Australia's Heritage

Cane Cutters and Mateship

A group of men get together in a pub and form a cane - cutting gang. Five million tons of sugarcane have to be cut by hand in back breaking conditions in North Queensland.

From the website Australians At Work

Waltzing Matilda Song Sheet

The original handwritten score for <cite>Waltzing Matilda</cite> holds the story of a musical collaboration that created Australia’s national song.

From the website National Treasures

Immigration

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A Land of Milk and Honey and English Lessons

Australia needs new migrants to populate the country and build a more prosperous nation. English lessons are available everywhere, including through correspondence and radio courses.

From the website Australians At Work

An Australian Greek Wife

Toula, an Australian-born Greek wife, is a Workers' Compensation officer. Breaking free from traditional Greek women's roles, she desires a career and creative freedom.

From the website Australians At Work

Giovanni's Tile Business Grows

Well-paid but back-breaking sugarcane work in North Queensland provided the initial resources for Giovanni's business. He and his family went on to create a now highly- successful imported tile business.

From the website Australians At Work

Outwork - A Vietnamese Refugee's Story

Migrant women work long hours sewing garments at home for a few dollars an hour. Many are refugees and have little understanding of their rights or the chance of alternative employment.

From the website Australians At Work

Immigration – Fill it or Lose It

The political forces and propaganda campaigns that tried to fill Australia with “pure white” immigrants.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Civil War in Sudan

Sudanese refugees talk about the impact of the civil war on their families and of creating a new life in Australia.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Bonegilla Migrant Camp

More than 300,000 migrants had their first taste of Australian life at the Bonegilla Migrant Camp in Victoria before moving out to transform Australia socially and culturally.

From the website National Treasures - Australia's Heritage

Snowy Mountains Scheme

An estimated 100,000 people worked on the Scheme between 1949 and 1974, the year of its completion. Two-thirds of the them were immigrants from over 40 countries around the world. They changed the face of Australian society.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Indigenous Studies

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Aboriginal People Make a Canoe and Hunt a Turtle

Arnhem Land in Australia's Northern Territory is the home of coastal Aboriginal People. On the beach it's time to play out one of the dramas of daily life - the return of the hunters.

From the website Australians At Work

Tommy McRae & Mickey of Ulladulla

Working at the end of the 19th century, Aboriginal artists Tommy McRae and Mickey of Ulladulla drew the world around them with an extraordinary vitality and sensitivity to detail.

From the website Hidden Treasures

Aboriginal People in the Gibson Desert

<cite>Aboriginal People in the Gibson Desert</cite> is an excerpt from the film <cite>Desert People</cite> (51 mins), produced in 1966. In 1966 a few Aboriginal families were living nomadic lives in the heart of Australia's Gibson Desert.

From the website Australians At Work

Dreamings, Through Indigenous Art

Indigenous art is like topographic mapping of land and culture. Michael Nelson Tjakamarra works at painting concentric circles which represent sacred sites.

From the website Australians At Work

Indigenous Business - A Cattle Station

The Yugal Cattle Co was given a grant of $336,000 to go into business running a cattle station. Their dreams of making money from cattle and beef export are big but there are problems. Traditional Indigenous laws are different from white man's law.

From the website Australians At Work

Noel Tovey

Noel Tovey survived a childhood of poverty, neglect, sexual abuse and racial prejudice to become a leading light in the arts as an actor, choreographer, writer and theatre director.

From the website Australian Biography

Indigenous Rights - Repatriation

The repatriation of aboriginal remains is an issue close to Aboriginal peoples' hearts and spirit and play a significant part of the reconciliation process.

From the website Talkback Classroom - Learning Journeys

CAAMA & Indigenous Broadcasting

A broadcast studio at Radio Redfern in the late 80s. Christina Spurgeon talks about the importance of providing media services to remote Indigenous communities to the culture, identity and language of Aboriginal Australians.

From the website From Wireless to Web

An Outback Policeman's Life

In the remote outback, a policeman sets out with two Indigenous stockmen to inspect the many hundreds of kilometres he patrols. His duties cover everything from punishing lawbreakers to acting as postmaster.

From the website Australians At Work

Harold Holt’s Briefcase

The disappearance of our seventeenth Prime Minister, Harold Holt, during a beach holiday sparked countless conspiracy theories. The items left in his briefcase are a significant time capsule of his last days as Prime Minister.

From the website The Prime Ministers' National Treasures

The Art of Cattle Droving

An artist and two drovers capture the beauty of 1200 head of cattle making their way across the outback in the last great Australian cattle drive.

From the website Australians At Work

Faith Bandler - 1967 Referendum

Civil rights activist Faith Bandler has made an enormous contribution to the peace movement and indigenous politics.

From the website Australian Biography

Remembering Eddie Mabo

Aboriginal Elder and teacher Douglas Bon remembers Eddie Mabo and the landmark land rights case he fought.

From the website Talkback Classroom - Learning Journeys

Augustus Earle and his Dog, Jemmy

Misadventure turned to good fortune when young English artist Augustus Earle was rescued after being marooned on a remote island and accidentally became the colony’s first trained artist.

From the website Hidden Treasures – Inside the National Library of Australia

Rosalie Kunoth Monks - Speaking Out

Rosalie Kunoth-Monks is an actor, ex-nun and Aboriginal activist.

From the website Australian Biography

Charles Perkins - Freedom Ride

Charles Perkins’ involvement in the Freedom Ride through rural New South Wales in the early 1960s played a crucial role in demonstrating that Aboriginal people could begin to stand up for themselves.

From the website Australian Biography

Neville Bonner - Change

By the early 1960s, it was clear that Indigenous people were not being assimilated — discrimination against Indigenous people continued and many Indigenous people refused to surrender their culture and lifestyle. The assimilation policy had failed.

From the website Australian Biography

Indigenous Rights - Representation

Deputy Chief Minister Marion Scrymgour and Aboriginal Tent Embassy representative Robert Craigie discuss the representation of Aboriginal people in Australian political institutions.

From the website Talkback Classroom - Learning Journeys

Albert Namatjira

Northern Territory Art Gallery Curator Franchesca Cubillo talks about the life of acclaimed Arrente artist Albert Namatjira (1902-1959) and his citizenship granted in 1957.

From the website Talkback Classroom - Learning Journeys

Parliamentary Representation

The strength of democracies is founded on the breadth of the representation of it's parliamentarians.

From the website Talkback Classroom - Learning Journeys

National Peak Indigenous Body?

Students and the Honorable Mal Brough look at how best peak bodies work for the community they represent.

From the website Talkback Classroom - Learning Journeys

The Bark Petition

In 1963 the Aboriginal Elders at Yirrkala presented the Federal Government with a bark painting, the title deed to their country.

From the website Talkback Classroom - Learning Journeys

European Observers

On January 26, 1788 the British arrived at what is now known as Sydney, New South Wales. From that day on, the lives of Australia’s indigenous peoples, their culture, history and traditions, were forever changed.

From the website First Australians

Oodgeroo Noonuccal

Writer and political activist Oodgeroo Noonuccal’s poetry represents and captures the growing reaction by a new generation of indigenous Australians against the long-standing colonial mentality.

From the website First Australians

The Rainbow Serpent

Ancient Australian creation myths of the Rainbow Serpent can be traced back in rock art at least 6000 years. All Rainbow Serpent stories share a common thread; the fundamental role of water in nature’s cycle of growth and regeneration.

From the website First Australians

The Songlines

Various clan groups extending across the land were linked by networks of songs containing aspects of cultural heritage, mythology and identity.

From the website First Australians

Trade Routes

Australian ‘prehistory’ is the time before written language was used to record information. Culture was passed from one group to another, and from one generation to the next, in oral form, ceremonial dance, and through rock and bark visual art.

From the website First Australians

Faith Bandler - Activist

Civil rights activist Faith Bandler has made an enormous contribution to the peace movement and indigenous politics.

From the website Australian Biography

Lowitja O'Donoghue - The Stolen Generation

Lois O’Donoghue was born in 1932 in a remote Aboriginal community. She never knew her white father and, at the age of two, was taken away from her mother, who she was not to see for 33 years.

From the website Australian Biography

Neville Bonner - Beginnings

Neville Bonner grew up on the banks of the Richmond River and started his working life as a ringbarker, canecutter and stockman. He spent 16 years on the repressive Palm Island Aboriginal Reserve where he learned many of the skills that would help him later as a politician.

From the website Australian Biography

May O'Brien

May O'Brien discusses growing up in a bush camp and her early years on a remote mission.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Wattie Creek

Wattie Creek entered Australian folklore as the birthplace of the Aboriginal land-rights movement when Prime Minister Gough Whitlam visited the Gurindji people to grant them deeds to their land.

From the website National Treasures - Australia's Heritage

Darwin meets Aborigines from the Darug Nation

In 1836 Charles Darwin visited Australia. He observed at first hand the impact of the onset of invading humans on the indigenous population.

From the website Charles Darwin - The Australian Connection

Post-World War 2 Society

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Axemen Fell Giant Trees

The axemen established camps throughout the eucalypt forests in the early 20th century. Their job was a combination of skill and stamina, harvesting giant trees for the rapidly growing hardwood industry.

From the website Australians At Work

Ben Chifley’s Pipe

Possibly our best loved Prime Minister, and a former train driver, Ben Chifley was rarely seen without his pipe, as he guided the country through the austere post-war years.

From the website The Prime Ministers' National Treasures

Launch of TV

Liz Jacka provides a brief history of the debate on how to establish television broadcasting in Australia. Tim Bowden recalls the enthusiasm with which Australians embraced television.

From the website From Wireless to Web

An Australian Wedding, 1968

Powerhouse Museum Curator Dr Kimberley Webber looks at how collections bring to life Australian stories in museums.

From the website Talkback Classroom - Learning Journeys

Fletcher Jones and Staff

As the door on imports widened at a rapid rate in the 1980s, the Fletcher Jones clothing business struggled to remain competitive. But the company and staff were determined to have a go and keep the factories busy.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Ethnic Discrimination

The issue of refugees and displaced people is one of the most complicated before the world community today. Every year millions of refugees from around the world search for a new homeland. About 13,000 of these people make new lives in Australia.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Nuclear Fall Out

Strontium 90, one of the deadliest poisons known, is a by product of the nuclear testing which Great Britain conducted in Australia in the 1950s and 1960s.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Cold War Games

The 1956 Melbourne Olympics took place at the height of the Cold War. Tensions between the USSR and the USA threatened to derail the Games.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Harold Holt's Australia

Harold Holt’s prime ministership represented a major social shift from the tradition and conservatism of the Menzies era, to that of the ‘swinging sixties’.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Ben Chifley's Australia

For most of the 1940s Australian Labor Party had managed to be the automatic choice for those wishing for an intelligently progressive future.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Closing Day at BHP's Newcastle Steelworks

Two thousand steelworkers collect their final paychecks and walk out of Newcastle's BHP steelworks for the last time. Men break down and cry. Many have laboured here all their working lives.

From the website Australians At Work

Scientific and technological change

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Charles Darwin proposes to Emma Wedgwood

Charles Darwin wrestles with his explosive ideas especially now that he is considering marriage.

From the website Charles Darwin - The Australian Connection

Charles Darwin - the father of evolutionary biology

Dr Maryanne Demasi is a science journalist on the ABC science program <cite>Catalyst</cite>. In this clip she introduces us to the ‘scientific giant’, Charles Darwin.

From the website Charles Darwin - The Australian Connection

Charles Darwin and the Galapagos Finches

Professor Richard Dawkins explains the significance of the finches collected during the <cite>Beagle</cite>'s visit to the Galapagos Islands, and how this iconic moment represents a failure rather than a triumph of Darwin’s scientific method.

From the website Charles Darwin - The Australian Connection

Charles Darwin arrives in Sydney

In 1936 Charles Darwin arrived in Australia and observed Australian wild life. He speculated about what this suggested about ‘creation’ - one of the first times he started to express his developing theory of evolution by means of natural selection.

From the website Charles Darwin - The Australian Connection

Steven Hopper at Kew Gardens

Steven Hopper, Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (UK) talks about Darwin’s contemporary Joseph Hooker.

From the website Charles Darwin - The Australian Connection

Technology

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Australia's First Nuclear Reactor

Prime Minister Robert Menzies opens the Lucas Heights nuclear reactor, and marvels at nuclear energy being a relatively new phenomenon in the world.

From the website Australians At Work

Test Tube Babies

An egg is collected from a woman's ovary and placed in a test tube to be fertilised by her husband's sperm. Once the embryo is growing normally it is placed back in the uterus.

From the website Australians At Work

Newsreels before sound

Newsreels included events of both political and social importance and were screened all day long in specially designed cinemas.

From the website From Wireless to Web

Early radio broadcasting

An excerpt from <cite>The Royal Empire Society Banquet</cite>. Liz Jacka describes the impact which radio broadcasts had on Australian life.

From the website From Wireless to Web

Vietnam War

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Australian Soldiers on Patrol in Vietnam

What does it feel like to be a soldier at war? Tense young Australian soldiers creep through the Vietnamese jungle, ever on the alert for the Viet Cong.

From the website Australians At Work

Cuc Lam's Suitcase

It may be just a small red vinyl suitcase but for Vietnamese refugee Cuc Lam it’s a symbol of a new beginning in a new country.

From the website National Treasures

Bruce Dawe - Anti War Poet

This encounter with highly regarded Australian poet Bruce Dawe allows us an insight into the motivation and methods of a very fine writer. His ability to express the drama and beauty of everyday life has made his work readily accessible to the general public.

From the website Australian Biography

World War 1

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The Magic Pudding Illustrations

Norman Lindsay’s <cite>The Magic Pudding</cite> is one of our best-loved children’s books and the central character, one of our great Australian anti-heroes.

From the website National Treasures

Jack Hazlitt - World War 1 Digger

A World War 1 digger reflects on his work as a runner in the trenches at Gallipoli. Hopping across the trenches in full view of the Turkish snipers, the average life of a runner was 24 hours.

From the website Australians At Work

World War 1 and the Conscription Referenda

Prime Minister William Morris (Billy) Hughes' Conscription Referendum failed twice, in 1916 and 1917.

From the website Australians At Work

Gallipoli Boat

A small lifeboat, retrieved from the shores of Gallipoli, is a direct link to the first Anzacs and the day that helped forge Australia’s identity.

From the website National Treasures

The Effects of World War 1 on the Australian Economy

When our troops were sent off to war in 1914, industry in Australia boomed. Steel was necessary for guns and ships.

From the website Australians At Work

Stanley Melbourne Bruce's Cigarette Case

Stanley Melbourne Bruce treasured Turkish President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s gift of a gold cigarette case throughout his life.

From the website The Prime Ministers' National Treasures

Monash and Billy Hughes

John Monash was a most unlikely Digger hero. Of Prussian-Jewish extraction, cultured, he was a middle-aged, overweight citizen-soldier with no active war experience when hostilities broke out in 1914.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Anzac Day

General John Monash strived to ensure soldiers that had fought in the Great War received due honour, recognition and assistance. He played a pivotal role in creating Anzac Day commemorations.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Monash at Gallipoli

The terrible defeat suffered by the Australian and New Zealand forces under British command at Gallipoli changed General John Monash's attitude to how to fight the Great War.

From the website Australian History Timeline

Armistice Day, 1918

By 1918 General John Monash and the AIF (Australian Imperial Forces) played a crucial role in defeating Germany on the western front.

From the website Australian History Timeline

David Williamson's Gallipoli

David Williamson wrote the film Gallipoli in collaboration with director Peter Weir. It has greatly influenced modern Australians’ view of this iconic event from Australia's past.

From the website Australian History Timeline

World War 2

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Australian Biography - Sir Marcus Oliphant

The first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. Sir Mark Oliphant helped to create the bomb, but even though it ended the war he can never reconcile himself to the loss of civilian life.

From the website Australians At Work

Return to the Thai-Burma Railway

Weary Dunlop and his elderly comrades return to the site of the Thai-Burma railway. As prisoners of war they each had to dig three cubic metres of earth a day, virtually with their bare hands.

From the website Australians At Work

HMAS Sydney's Carley Float

A tiny, war-ravaged liferaft from the HMAS Sydney is our only physical link to Australia’s worst-ever naval disaster.

From the website National Treasures

Kokoda - War on Film

Alister Grierson, director of the 2006 feature film "Kokoda" talks about historical accuracy and representing war experience on film.

From the website Talkback Classroom - Learning Journeys

Newsreels boost morale

Newsreels of the war boosted the morale of Australians at the home front. The newsreel of Australian troops on the Kokoda Track shared the Oscar for Best Documentary in 1942.

From the website From Wireless to Web

Menzies and Churchill

Menzies traveled to London during the dark months of 1941 where he took on British Prime Minister Churchill over the strategic direction of the war.

From the website Australian History Timeline